Category Archives: MPLS

vrf-table-label on Juniper JunOS

In this blog we will discuss about one important knob in JunOS i.e vrf-table-label.

Vrf-table-label is useful for 2 purposes in Junos

  1. Save label space
  2. Perform 2 lookup on packet

So let’s understand it more. We will start with 1st point above

Junos by default allocates same VPN Label to prefixes recieved from one CE Interface. So for example if you have 2 CEs connected via 2 different interfaces and they are in same VPN on PE then Junos will allocate 2 different VPN labels to the prefixes recieved. In Cisco this is different where VPN label is allocated on per prefix which according to some is not optimal but we are not comparing anything here.

Currently in our configuration vrf-table-label is not configured. If you see below, we have 2 CEs connected to Juniper M320 PE1 via 2 different interfaces and we have Ebgp relationship between them and we are receiving some routes over it.

PE1-re1> show route 10.203.20.6
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

10.203.20.4/30 *[Direct/0] 3d 00:21:55
> via ge-0/3/2.20

PE1-re1> show route 10.203.12.2
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

10.203.12.0/30 *[Direct/0] 00:10:26
> via so-1/0/0.12

PE1-re1> show route receive-protocol bgp 10.203.12.2 table MVPN-1.inet.0
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
Prefix                              Nexthop              MED Lclpref AS path
* 10.1.225.128/32          10.203.12.2                                 65012 I
10.203.12.0/30               10.203.12.2                                 65012 I

PE1-re1> show route receive-protocol bgp 10.203.20.6 table MVPN-1.inet.0
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
Prefix                              Nexthop             MED Lclpref AS path
* 10.0.233.0/30               10.203.20.6                                65020 I

Now if we look at the VPN label which is being tagged by this PE1 for the routes received by CE, we can see that Junos is allocating separate VPN Labels to both of the routes which is what I mentioned earlier.

PE1-re1> show route advertising-protocol bgp 10.198.123.236 10.0.233.0/30 extensive
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
* 10.0.233.0/30 (2 entries, 1 announced)
BGP group mvpn-rr type Internal
Route Distinguisher: 10.198.123.203:32764
VPN Label: 300448
Nexthop: Self
Flags: Nexthop Change
Localpref: 100
AS path: [65004] 65020 I
Communities: target:65000:321 src-as:65004:0 rt-import:10.198.123.203:16

PE1-re1> show route advertising-protocol bgp 10.198.123.236 10.203.12.0/30 extensive
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
* 10.203.12.0/30 (2 entries, 1 announced)
BGP group mvpn-rr type Internal
Route Distinguisher: 10.198.123.203:32764
VPN Label: 300480
Nexthop: Self
Flags: Nexthop Change
Localpref: 100
AS path: [65004] I
Communities: target:65000:321 src-as:65004:0 rt-import:10.198.123.203:16

Now if we configure the vrf-table-label under routing instance on PE1, we can see the difference.

[edit routing-instances MVPN-1]
PE1-re1# set vrf-table-label

edit routing-instances MVPN-1]
PE1-re1# commit
re1:
configuration check succeeds
re0:
commit complete
re1:
commit complete

See the difference below, now only one VPN label is being allocated for the whole VRF and this really saves the label space.

PE1-re1> show route advertising-protocol bgp 10.198.123.236 10.203.12.0/30 extensive
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
* 10.203.12.0/30 (2 entries, 1 announced)
BGP group mvpn-rr type Internal
Route Distinguisher: 10.198.123.203:32764
VPN Label: 39
Nexthop: Self
Flags: Nexthop Change
Localpref: 100
AS path: [65004] I
Communities: target:65000:321 src-as:65004:0 rt-import:10.198.123.203:16

PE1-re1> show route advertising-protocol bgp 10.198.123.236 10.0.233.0/30 extensive
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
* 10.0.233.0/30 (2 entries, 1 announced)
BGP group mvpn-rr type Internal
Route Distinguisher: 10.198.123.203:32764
VPN Label: 39
Nexthop: Self
Flags: Nexthop Change
Localpref: 100
AS path: [65004] 65020 I
Communities: target:65000:321 src-as:65004:0 rt-import:10.198.123.203:16

So this completes one part. Now moving over to 2nd part.
Junos by default looks at the incoming MPLS packet, Pops the label and sends the underlying packet to CE without looking at IP packet at all. This situation is fine in case you have PE connected to CE via P2P links like Serial links however if you have Broadcast medium like Ethernet in between then router can’t just send the packet like this without first building the frame and to build frame it needs to do ARP lookup to get the MAC Address of the CE. So it needs to do extra lookup apart from MPLS lookup.
Vrf-table-label actually allows the router to do 2 lookups. The first lookup is done on the VPN label to determine which VRF table to refer to, and the second lookup is done on the IP header to determine how to forward packets to the correct end hosts on the shared medium. This can be useful for number of applications like ingress firewall filters, CoS etc. Now a days VT interface (tunnel-pic) is also used to do the same however if router doesn’t support tunnel-pic then vrf-table-label can be used in its place to do the same thing. With VTL, lsi interface is created which allows it to handle the first lookup before a second ARP/IP lookup is carried out through the PFE.

Lets rollback the changes we did above and come back to same situation where unique label is assigned per CE port.

VPN Label 300560 is assigned for the route by PE1 and when mpls table is checked for that particular label we can see action is Pop plus to send the packet directly to interface.

PE1-re1> show route advertising-protocol bgp 10.198.123.236 10.203.12.0/30 extensive
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
* 10.203.12.0/30 (2 entries, 1 announced)
BGP group mvpn-rr type Internal
Route Distinguisher: 10.198.123.203:32764
VPN Label: 300560
Nexthop: Self
Flags: Nexthop Change
Localpref: 100
AS path: [65004] I
Communities: target:65000:321 src-as:65004:0 rt-import:10.198.123.203:16

PE1-re1> show route table mpls.0 label 300560
mpls.0: 57 destinations, 57 routes (57 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both
300560 *[VPN/170] 00:00:41
> via so-1/0/0.12, Pop

If we enable the vrf-table-label now and check the same route and corresponding label. Lets see what we see.

PE1-re1> show route advertising-protocol bgp 10.198.123.236 10.203.12.0/30 extensive
MVPN-1.inet.0: 46 destinations, 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
* 10.203.12.0/30 (2 entries, 1 announced)
BGP group mvpn-rr type Internal
Route Distinguisher: 10.198.123.203:32764
VPN Label: 40
Nexthop: Self
Flags: Nexthop Change
Localpref: 100
AS path: [65004] I
Communities: target:65000:321 src-as:65004:0 rt-import:10.198.123.203:16

PE1-re1> show route table mpls.0 label 40
mpls.0: 53 destinations, 53 routes (53 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

40 *[VPN/0] 00:00:12
to table MVPN-1.inet.0, Pop

So we can see, label 40 is basically pointing to routing-table now and not to interface as in our previous case. You can see the corresponding LSI interface allocated by looking at following command

PE1-re1> show route instance MVPN-1 detail
MVPN-1:
Router ID: 10.14.233.1
Type: vrf State: Active
Restart State: Complete Path selection timeout: 300
Interfaces:
lsi.24
so-1/0/0.12
ge-0/3/3.50
ge-0/3/2.20
vt-1/2/0.20
Route-distinguisher: 10.198.123.203:32764
Vrf-import: [ __vrf-import-MVPN-1-internal__ ]
Vrf-export: [ __vrf-export-MVPN-1-internal__ ]
Vrf-import-target: [ target:65000:321 ]
Vrf-export-target: [ target:65000:321 ]
Fast-reroute-priority: low
Tables:
MVPN-1.inet.0 : 77 routes (46 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
MVPN-1.inet.1 : 11 routes (9 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
MVPN-1.mvpn.0 : 77 routes (42 active, 7 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete

Ok so that’s all. I hope you liked the blog and I was able to resolve some of your confusion on this command. If you still have any queries, please let me know and I would be happy to discuss.

Regards
Mohit Mittal

 

 

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L2VPN using Kompella – Junos

In my earlier blog on L2VPN via CCC https://networkzblogger.com/2017/04/23/l2vpn-via-ccc-in-junos/ we saw in that method customer interface needs to be bind with LSP and for each customer we need to have separate LSP configured which is not ideal from operational perspective. In this blog we will look at another method of achieving this where BGP is used as signalling protocol which automates the connections, so manual configuration of the association between the LSP and the customer edge interface is not required.

This config is also called Kompella after its author (https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-kompella-l2vpn-l2vpn-00) where BGP is used to signal the control plane and it uses a two label stack as Martini. The VC (VPN) label is signalled via BGP and transport label can be signaled via either RSVP or LDP.

We would be looking at below topology where we will be configuring the MPLS L2VPN or Juniper L2CIRCUIT between M10i and MX960 PEs. M320s in between are just acting as Transit P/PE nodes and no configuration specifically needed on them for L2VPN however normal RSVP/LDP/MPLS/IGP config needs to be configured for transport label same as how L3VPN works.

L2VPN Kompella

MX104s are acting as RR so BGP neighborship will appropriate family needs to be activated between PEs-RRs.

For BGP based L2VPNs, following configuration needs to be configured

  1. BGP group with family l2vpn signalling
  2. Routing instance using instance type “l2vpn”
  3. Ethernet link needs to be established with Customer and same needs to be defined under Routing-instance.

Let’s start with Juniper l2vpn configuration.

First BGP Group where l2vpn signalling family needs to be enabled for PE-RR group.

BGP neighborship between M10i and one of the RR.

M10i-PE> show configuration protocols bgp group L2VPN-RRs
type internal;
family l2vpn {
    signaling;
}
authentication-algorithm md5;
authentication-key-chain BGP-L2VPN-key-chain;
neighbor 10.198.123.234;  <<<<<<<<< Loopback of RR1
neighbor 10.198.123.237;  <<<<<<<<< Loopback of RR2

BGP neighborship between M10i and one of the RR.

M10i-PE > show bgp neighbor 10.198.123.234
Peer: 10.198.123.234+179 AS 65004 Local: 10.198.123.213+50453 AS 65004
 Group: L2VPN-RRs Routing-Instance: master
 Type: Internal State: Established Flags: <Sync>
 Options: <Preference LocalAddress GracefulRestart LogUpDown AddressFamily Rib-group Refresh>
 Address families configured: l2vpn-signaling
 Local Address: 10.198.123.213 Holdtime: 90 Preference: 170
 Peer ID: 10.198.123.234 Local ID: 10.198.123.213 Active Holdtime: 90
 NLRI for restart configured on peer: l2vpn
 NLRI advertised by peer: l2vpn
 NLRI for this session: l2vpn
 Peer supports Refresh capability (2)
 Restart time configured on the peer: 120
 Stale routes from peer are kept for: 300
 Restart time requested by this peer: 120
 NLRI that peer supports restart for: l2vpn
 NLRI peer can save forwarding state: l2vpn
 NLRI that peer saved forwarding for: l2vpn
 NLRI that restart is negotiated for: l2vpn
 NLRI of received end-of-rib markers: l2vpn
 NLRI of all end-of-rib markers sent: l2vpn.
.
.

Even though customer facing config is not part of MPLS L2VPN, I will define it here which is using l2vpn encapsulation vlan-ccc.

M10i-PE > show configuration interfaces fe-0/1/1
description "Connected to CE-1";
vlan-tagging;
link-mode full-duplex;
encapsulation vlan-ccc;
unit 2 {
 encapsulation vlan-ccc;
 vlan-id 1001;
 family ccc;
}

Fairly simple configuration which is using encapsulation vlan-ccc.

OK, lets move to 2nd and 3rd part which is routing-instance configuration. I have highlighted important bits below. Off course for this L2VPN type you need to define RD, RT, and Interface which I am not mentioning specifically but you can see below.

M10i-PE > show configuration routing-instances L2VPN
instance-type l2vpn;
interface fe-0/1/1.2;
route-distinguisher 10.198.123.213:2;
vrf-target target:65004:2;
protocols {
 l2vpn {
 encapsulation-type ethernet-vlan;
 site Audi {
 site-identifier 2;
 interface fe-0/1/1.2 {
 remote-site-id 3;
 }
 }
 }
}

Important bit is instance-type l2vpn which enables this routing-instance for L2VPN. Under protocols l2vpn we have to enable the encap type as ethernet-vlan and then under site parameters we need to be define local site-identifier which is in our case is 2 and an optional remote-site-id. I have defined remote-site-id as 3 which will be configured on MX960 Remote-PE as its local site-identifier.

In same way we will be configuring the MX960 PE

MX960-PE> show configuration interfaces ge-1/1/9.700
encapsulation vlan-ccc;
vlan-id 700;
family ccc;

MX960-PE> show configuration routing-instances L2VPN
instance-type l2vpn;
interface ge-1/1/9.700;
route-distinguisher 10.198.123.205:3;
vrf-target target:65004:2;
protocols {
 l2vpn {
 encapsulation-type ethernet-vlan;
 site Bentley {
 site-identifier 3;
 interface ge-1/1/9.700 {
 remote-site-id 2;
 }
 }
 }
}

Once this is configured, let’s check the routing table on M10i

M10i-PE > show route table L2VPN.l2vpn.0
L2VPN.l2vpn.0: 3 destinations, 5 routes (3 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
+ = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both

10.198.123.205:3:3:1/96 <<<<<<<<<------------ Learnt from MX960
 *[BGP/170] 13:56:58, localpref 100, from 10.198.123.237
 AS path: I, validation-state: unverified
 > via so-0/0/0.0, Push 299888
 [BGP/170] 13:56:58, localpref 100, from 10.198.123.234
 AS path: I, validation-state: unverified
 > via so-0/0/0.0, Push 299888
.
.
.
10.198.123.213:2:2:3/96 <<<<<<<<-------------- Local route on M10i
 *[L2VPN/170/-101] 16:56:08, metric2 1
 Indirect

This output is showing us RD value of 10.198.123.205:3 plus value of remote-side identifier which is 3 as well plus label-offset value which is 1

In same way, local route has RD value of 10.198.123.213:2 plus value of remote-side identifier which is 2 and label-offset value of 3. Will explain label-offset later.

So this completes our BGP control signalling path.

L2VPN connection state is up between both PEs

M10i-PE > show l2vpn connections up
Layer-2 VPN connections:

Instance: L2VPN
Edge protection: Not-Primary
 Local site: Audi (2)
 connection-site Type St Time last up # Up trans
 3               rmt  Up May 2 20:53:51 2017 1
 Remote PE: 10.198.123.205, Negotiated control-word: Yes (Null)
 Incoming label: 800006, Outgoing label: 800003
 Local interface: fe-0/1/1.2, Status: Up, Encapsulation: VLAN

Now we can move over to forwarding path where we will see MPLS labels. As in case of L3VPNs, we have 2 Labels on each packet i.e. VPN Label and other is transport label.

Transport label is calculated in same way where label is assigned for next-hop which in our case is remote-PE MX960 loopback address and this label can be learnt by any method LDP or RSVP and will be advertised to M10i PE by its immediate neighbour which in our case is M320.

So to check the label stack which is being pushed at M10i, we can see the MPLS.0 table.

M10i-PE > show route table mpls.0
mpls.0: 25 destinations, 25 routes (25 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
+ = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both
.
.
.
fe-0/1/1.2 *[L2VPN/7] 14:27:18, metric2 1
 > via so-0/0/0.0, Push 800003, Push 299888(top) Offset: 252

So you can see two labels are being pushed, TOP (transport) label is 299888 which is advertised by M320

M320-Transit-P-1> show ldp database session 10.198.123.213
.
.

Output label database, 10.198.123.202:0--10.198.123.213:0
 Label Prefix
 306336 10.198.123.100/32
 299808 10.198.123.201/32
 3      10.198.123.202/32
 299792 10.198.123.203/32
 308832 10.198.123.204/32
 299888 10.198.123.205/32
 304288 10.198.123.211/32

VPN Label is 800003 which is calculated little bit differently in case of L2VPNs and not directly advertised by Remote-Pes.

Formula to calculate VPN label is

L2VPN label = Label-Base (remote) + Site-Id(Local) – Label-Offset (remote)

Label-base (remote) value is what we can get from MX960 by looking at its L2VPN.l2vpn table

MX960-PE > show route table L2VPN.l2vpn.0 extensive
L2VPN.l2vpn.0: 3 destinations, 5 routes (3 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
.
.
 Advertised metrics:
 Flags: Nexthop Change
 Nexthop: Self
 Localpref: 100
 AS path: [65004] I
Path 10.198.123.205:3:3:1 Vector len 4. Val: 0
 *L2VPN Preference: 170/-101
 Next hop type: Indirect, Next hop index: 0
 Address: 0xa5d246c
.
.
.
 Label-base: 800002, range: 2, status-vector: 0x0, offset: 1
 Secondary Tables: L2VPN.l2id.0

You can see above that label-base is 800002 on MX960 and Label-offset value is 1

So as per our equation above,

L2VPN Label = 800002 + 2 (Site-id local on M10i)  – 1  = 800003

Once this VPN Label reaches MX960, it is pop as per normal MPLS procedures and out to CE-2 interface.

800003 *[L2VPN/7] 14:37:16
 > via ge-1/1/9.700, Pop Offset: 4

In same way, MX960 will also calculate the VPN label for traffic flowing from MX960 to M10i.

So that’s all for this blog. I hope you enjoyed it and let me know if you still have any issues.

 

Regards

Mohit Mittal


	

L2VPN via CCC in Junos!!!!

L2VPNs are another type of VPNs which Service providers have in their kitty to connect their customers over its MPLS environment. With L2VPNs, service providers extend the Customer LAN over the SP network and customer don’t have any idea that they are connected over the MPLS network. There are many variants of L2VPNs and majority of them use LDP/BGP schemes to configure this. However first method which was implemented for carrying layer 2 traffic over a MPLS network was CCC (Circuit Cross Connect) which we will talk here and still being used by many SPs to connect their customers.

CCC scheme always use an RSVP Signaled LSP which has advantage of taking Traffic Engineering properties of RSVP. For each connection between Customers we need to have a dedicated LSP which is different from LDP/BGP schemes which use same Transport LSP to send the traffic E2E.

As we have dedicated LSP between 2 End Point PEs, there is no concept of VPN Label to associate the corresponding VRF/Customer interface in case of CCC scheme. Also in CCC, as there is only label E2E, we need to disable the PHP (Penultimate Hop Popping) so that Penultimate Hop Router doesn’t Pop the label which would otherwise send plain Ethernet Frame to Egress PE and PE won’t be knowing what to do with this.

For a point-to-point CCC connection, the connection is bidirectional, so an RSVP-signaled LSP is required in each direction between the two PEs.

We will look at configuration of L2VPN via CCC method on Junos where we will use the below Network to configure it.

VPN CCC Model

As the connection needs to be bidirectional, we will only look at the forwarding path from Left to right however other direction would be using the same method.

On Ingress side, Customer CE-1 is connected to ge-0/1/8/.601 interface on MX104 PE and interface config would be:

Re1@Ingress_PE> show configuration interfaces ge-0/1/8
description "Connected to Customer CE-1";
vlan-tagging;
mtu 1522;
encapsulation vlan-ccc;
unit 601 {
    encapsulation vlan-ccc;
    vlan-id 601;
    family ccc;
}

Vlans 512-4094 are only reserved for vlan-ccc encapsulation so you need to use vlan greater than equal to 512.

On Egress side, Customer CE-2 is connected to xe-2/0/0.601 interface on MX960 PE and interface config would be:

Re1@Egress_PE> show configuration interfaces xe-2/0/0
description "Connected to Customer CE-2";
vlan-tagging;
mtu 1522;
encapsulation vlan-ccc;
unit 601 {
 encapsulation vlan-ccc;
 vlan-id 601;
 family ccc;
}

Next config is to create a Label switched path from Ingress to Egress with an optional strict ‘path’ to fully utilize the TE properties otherwise router will dynamically calculate the path towards Egress.

In our case, we have defined the path

So LSP from Ingress MX104 PE to Egress PE MX960 via Transit PE looks like:

Re1@Ingress_PE > show configuration protocols mpls label-switched-path MX104-MX960
to 10.198.123.205;
bandwidth 100m;
optimize-timer 900;
preference 200;
priority 5 0;
primary MX104-MX960; <<<<< Path

Re1@Ingress_PE > show mpls lsp name MX104-MX960
Ingress LSP: 11 sessions
To             From           State Rt P ActivePath LSPname
10.198.123.205 10.198.123.100 Up    0 * MX104-MX960 MX104-MX960
Total 1 displayed, Up 1

LSP is Up and everything looks fine from Ingress to Egress. In same way we have to configure the LSP from MX960 to MX104 in other direction. Once both LSPs are up, we have to bind these LSPs and Ingress Interface under one connection on MX104 and same way in MX960.

Lets check on MX104 Ingress

Re1@Ingress_PE > show configuration protocols connections remote-interface-switch L2VPN
interface ge-0/1/8.601;
transmit-lsp MX104-MX960; 
receive-lsp MX960-MX104;  

Once we have configured this on both sides, we should have this connection Up and running. Lets check this.

Re1@Ingress_PE > show connections remote-interface-switch L2VPN
CCC and TCC connections [Link Monitoring On]
Legend for status (St): Legend for connection types:
 UN -- uninitialized if-sw: interface switching
 NP -- not present rmt-if: remote interface switching
 WE -- wrong encapsulation lsp-sw: LSP switching
 DS -- disabled tx-p2mp-sw: transmit P2MP switching
 Dn -- down rx-p2mp-sw: receive P2MP switching
 -> -- only outbound conn is up Legend for circuit types:

So we have UP state once config is done on both sides. Our L2VPN is ready to accept and switch the traffic to egress. For any chance if there is any issue in config like vlan-mismatch on other end or LSP is down because of any reason like path or Bandwidth issue, connection won’t be up and we can see from the various legend from the command output showing exactly where is the issue.

Now as Control plane is configured, let’s check how Forwarding plane looks like.

Lets see the label which has been allocated by Ingress PE for this LSP.

Re1@Ingress_PE > show rsvp session ingress up name MX104-MX960
Ingress RSVP: 11 sessions
To             From           State Rt Style Labelin Labelout LSPname
10.198.123.205 10.198.123.100 Up    0 1 FF         - 307680   MX104-MX960
Total 1 displayed, Up 1, Down 0

Re1@Ingress_PE > show route table mpls.0 label-switched-path MX104-MX960 extensive
mpls.0: 25 destinations, 25 routes (25 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
ge-0/1/8.601 (1 entry, 1 announced)
TSI:
KRT in-kernel ge-0/1/8.601.0 /32 -> {Push 307680}
 *CCC Preference: 200/1
 Next hop type: Router, Next hop index: 829
 Address: 0x2b4c224
 Next-hop reference count: 2
 Next hop: 10.0.0.169 via ge-0/0/1.0 weight 0x1, selected
 Label-switched-path MX104-MX960
 Label operation: Push 307680
 Label TTL action: no-prop-ttl
 Session Id: 0x3
 State: 
 Local AS: 65004
 Age: 19:10 Metric: 328
 Validation State: unverified
 Task: MPLS
 Announcement bits (1): 0-KRT
 AS path: I

Lets look at Transit PE-1. As you can see below, Label from MX104 Ingress is being swapped here with 300928.

Re1@Transit-PE-1> show rsvp session transit name MX104-MX960
Transit RSVP: 13 sessions
To             From           State Rt Style Labelin Labelout LSPname
10.198.123.205 10.198.123.100 Up 0 1 FF      307680  300928 MX104-MX960
Total 1 displayed, Up 1, Down 0

Similarly on Transit PE-2

Re1@Transit-PE-2> show rsvp session transit name MX104-MX960
Transit RSVP: 7 sessions
To             From           State Rt Style Labelin Labelout LSPname
10.198.123.205 10.198.123.100 Up 0 1 FF      300928  300427  MX104-MX960
Total 1 displayed, Up 1, Down 0

At Egress PE,

Re1@Egress-PE> show rsvp session egress up name MX104-MX960
Egress RSVP: 29 sessions
To             From           State Rt Style Labelin Labelout LSPname
10.198.123.205 10.198.123.100 Up 0 1 FF      300427  -        MX104-MX960
Total 1 displayed, Up 1, Down 0

Re1@Egress-PE> show route table mpls.0 label 300427 extensive
mpls.0: 81 destinations, 81 routes (81 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
300427 (1 entry, 1 announced)
TSI:
KRT in-kernel 300427 /52 -> {Pop }
 *CCC Preference: 7
 Next hop type: Router, Next hop index: 1725
 Address: 0xe9414fc
 Next-hop reference count: 2
 Next hop: via xe-2/0/0.601, selected
 Label operation: Pop
 Load balance label: None;
 Label element ptr: 0xa7c8780
 Label parent element ptr: 0x0
 Label element references: 20
 Label element child references: 0
 Label element lsp id: 0
 Session Id: 0x0
 State: 
 Local AS: 65004
 Age: 2d 2:21:13
 Validation State: unverified
 Task: MPLS global
 Announcement bits (1): 1-KRT
 AS path: I

Just to confirm this all, you can use the below command on Ingress/Egress PE which shows what all labels being pushed and used for this LSP via CCC.

Re1@Ingress_PE > show connections remote-interface-switch L2VPN labels
CCC and TCC connections [Link Monitoring On]
Legend for status (St): Legend for connection types:
 UN -- uninitialized if-sw: interface switching
 NP -- not present rmt-if: remote interface switching
 WE -- wrong encapsulation lsp-sw: LSP switching
 DS -- disabled tx-p2mp-sw: transmit P2MP switching
 Dn -- down rx-p2mp-sw: receive P2MP switching
 -> -- only outbound conn is up Legend for circuit types:
  Outgoing labels: Push 307680

Re1@Egress_PE > show connections remote-interface-switch L2VPN labels
CCC and TCC connections [Link Monitoring On]
Legend for status (St): Legend for connection types:
 UN -- uninitialized if-sw: interface switching
 NP -- not present rmt-if: remote interface switching
 WE -- wrong encapsulation lsp-sw: LSP switching
 DS -- disabled tx-p2mp-sw: transmit P2MP switching
 Dn -- down rx-p2mp-sw: receive P2MP switching
 -> -- only outbound conn is up Legend for circuit types:
  Incoming labels: 300427
 Outgoing labels: Push 301040

Others labels shown in above commands are for opposite direction from Egress to Ingress.

So that’s all for L2VPN CCC. I hope I have been able to clear your doubts if you had any. if you have any queries, please let me know. In future blogs, we will discuss other methods of doing L2VPN.

Regards

Mohit

BGP Route Distinguisher vs Route Target

In this post I will try to clarify the difference between route distinguisher and route target within the Cisco world of MPLS VPN’s. The main confusion comes from the fact that in most Cisco Press books they always show the route distinguisher value and route target value as the same.
They are not the same and are used for completely different things.
In simple terms the route distinguisher is used to create a unique 96 bit address called the VPNv4 address.
This ensures that even if two customers are running the 10.0.0.0/8 address space their addresses remain unique within the MPLS network.
The Route Target is a 64 bit BGP community used to tag prefixes. It tells the Remote PE routers which prefix it can import.

Route Distinguisher

The route distinguisher has only one purpose, to make IPv4 prefixes globally unique. It is used by the PE routers to identify which VPN a packet belongs to, e.g to enable a router to distinguish between 10.0.0.1/8 for Customer A and 10.0.0.1/8 for Customer B. The route distinguisher is made up of an 8 byte field prefixed to the customer 4 Byte IPv4 address, the resulting 12 byte field makes a unique VPNv4 address.

RD

R1(config)#ip vrf Customer_A

If we type “rd ?” you can see 2 options for configuring the RD..

R1(config-vrf)#rd ?
ASN:nn or IP-address:nn VPN Route Distinguisher

For the purpose of this description I will configure the RD value as 65355:10 which AS number 65535 and Unique value 10 combinatin

R1(config-vrf)#rd 65355:10

To verify this value enter the command sh ip vrf
R1#sh ip vrf
Name Default RD Interfaces
Customer_A 65355:10

Route Target

The route target on the other hand is an 8 byte field which is a BGP extended Communities Attribute and it defines which prefixes are exported and imported on the PE routers.

RT

So for example consider Router R3 has 2 VRF’s configured on it “Customer_A” and “Customer_B” so you would define under each vrf a unique route target value, these take the same format as the route distinguisher, but for the purpose of this explanation we are going to use 1:1 for Customer_A and 2:2 for Customer_B. On R3 we want to export and import the prefixes for Customer A and B, however on router R1 we only want to import and export the prefixes for Customer_A and on router R2 we only want to import and export the prefixes for Customer_B

To conclude, the route distinguisher and route target values perform two completely separate functions, and although in a lot of cisco books the values are the same (which they can be) it is confusing to someone learning MPLS for the first time as they assume they do the same thing.
The route distinguisher makes a unique VPNv4 address across the MPLS network and the route target defines which prefixes get imported and exported on the PE routers.

 

Regards

Mohit Mittal

 

Route-Reflection in JunOS

Let’s talk about one important concept in Route-reflection configuration in Junos.

To start with, there are 2 main IPv4 routing-tables in Junos which are inet.0 and inet3.0. inet.0 is main global routing table and inet3.0 is used in MPLS Layer 3 VPN and this table stores the egress address of an MPLS label-switched path (LSP), the LSP name, and the outgoing interface name. Only BGP accesses the inet.3 routing table. BGP uses both inet.0 and inet.3 to resolve next-hop addresses.

Now let’s configure the Route-reflection in Network. We will using 2 PEs and 1 RR

MPLS Network_1

Config on PE1:

PE1-re0> show configuration protocols bgp
local-address 10.198.123.204;
group L3VPN-RRs {
type internal;
family inet-vpn {
unicast;
}
authentication-algorithm md5;
authentication-key-chain BGP-L3VPN-key-chain;
export L3VPN-Export;
vpn-apply-export;
neighbor 10.198.123.235;   <<<<<<<<<<<<<<———- Router ID of RR
}

Config on PE2:

PE-2-re0> show configuration protocols bgp
local-address 10.198.123.205;
group L3VPN-RRs {
type internal;
family inet-vpn {
unicast;
}
authentication-algorithm md5;
authentication-key-chain BGP-L3VPN-key-chain;
export L3VPN-Export;
vpn-apply-export;
neighbor 10.198.123.235;
}

Config on RR (relevant configs only):

RR.re0> show configuration logical-systems l3vpn-RR
interfaces {
lo0 {
unit 3 {
family inet {
filter {
input Protect-RE;
}
address 10.198.123.235/32;
}
}
}
}
protocols {
bgp {
local-address 10.198.123.235;
mtu-discovery;
log-updown;
family inet-vpn {
unicast;
}
group l3vpn-client-group {
type internal;
authentication-algorithm md5;
authentication-key-chain BGP-L3VPN-key-chain;
cluster 10.198.123.235;
neighbor 10.198.123.204;
neighbor 10.198.123.205;
}
.
.
.
.
routing-options {
graceful-restart {
restart-duration 500;
}
router-id 10.198.123.235;
autonomous-system 65004;
}

BGP is established between PEs and RR

PE-2-re0> show bgp summary | match 10.198.123.235
10.198.123.235       65004      19154     12204       0       5 3d 23:20:04 Establ

PE-1-re0> show bgp summary | match 10.198.123.235
10.198.123.235       65004     19154     12326       0       1 3d 23:20:38 Establ

RR-re0> show bgp summary logical-system l3vpn-RR | match 10.198.123.204
10.198.123.204       65004     12336     19179       0     34 3d 23:25:10 Establ

RR-re0show bgp summary logical-system l3vpn-RR | match 10.198.123.205
10.198.123.205       65004     12212     19179       0     10 3d 23:24:31 Establ

PE-1 is advertising routes towards RR with next-hop address as its own loopback. All well n good.

PE-1-re0> show route advertising-protocol bgp 10.198.123.235
Data-VPN.inet.0: 22 destinations, 22 routes (22 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
Prefix                          Nexthop             MED     Lclpref   AS path
* 10.12.204.128/32     Self                       100       I
* 10.12.240.0/30         Self                         100       65012 I
* 10.12.240.128/32     Self                        100       65012 I
* 10.204.12.0/30         Self                         100       I

M10i-L3VPN.inet.0: 6 destinations, 6 routes (6 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
Prefix                         Nexthop            MED     Lclpref   AS path
* 10.0.0.240/30           Self                         100       65020 I
* 100.100.100.0/30   Self                         100       I

However wait a minute, we are not seeing any routes under BGP table on RR

RR-re0> show route receive-protocol bgp 10.198.123.204 logical-system l3vpn-RR
inet.0: 96 destinations, 96 routes (96 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
bgp.l3vpn.0: 89 destinations, 178 routes (0 active, 0 holddown, 178 hidden)
Restart Complete

Why is this??.. Now this is fundamentally an issue with how the things were setup.

As I mentioned above inet.3 table stores the egress address of an MPLS label-switched path (LSP) which is used by BGP table to resolve next-hop addresses which in our case is loopback ip of PEs however as RR is not in forwarding path there are no MPLS LSPs configured on it and in-turn no inet.3 table entries which is a problem and that’s why you can see all entries in output above are hidden as bgp table is not able to resolve the next-hop IPs in inet3 table.

So there are number of ways to resolve this and will be discussing two of them here. Simplest one and most widely used method is to configure a static route for loopback IP subnet under inet.3 rib as below.

[edit logical-systems l3vpn-RR routing-options]
RR.re0# load merge terminal relative
[Type ^D at a new line to end input]
rib inet.3 {
static {
route 10.198.123.0/24 {
discard;
metric 65535;
}
}
}
load complete
[edit logical-systems l3vpn-RR routing-options]
RR.re0# commit
re0:
configuration check succeeds
re0:
commit complete

Once you configure this, inet.3 table is populated with static entry and now BGP can use this to resolve the next-hop IP Address for each route and all entries are visible now in routing table.

RR.re0> show route logical-system l3vpn-RR table inet.3
inet.3: 1 destinations, 1 routes (1 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both
10.198.123.0/24   *[Static/5] 00:00:08, metric 65535
Discard
[edit logical-systems l3vpn-RR routing-options]
RR.re0# run show route logical-system l3vpn-RR table bgp.l3vpn.0
bgp.l3vpn.0: 89 destinations, 178 routes (89 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Restart Complete
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both
.
.
.
.
10.198.123.204:12:10.0.0.240/30
*[BGP/170] 4d 04:25:15, localpref 100, from 10.198.123.204
AS path: 65020 I, validation-state: unverified
to Discard
[BGP/170] 05:34:11, localpref 100, from 10.198.123.238
AS path: 65020 I, validation-state: unverified
to Discard
10.198.123.204:12:100.100.100.0/30
*[BGP/170] 4d 04:25:15, localpref 100, from 10.198.123.204
AS path: I, validation-state: unverified
to Discard
[BGP/170] 05:34:11, localpref 100, from 10.198.123.238
AS path: I, validation-state: unverified
to Discard
10.198.123.204:116:10.0.0.24/30
*[BGP/170] 4d 04:25:15, localpref 100, from 10.198.123.204
AS path: I, validation-state: unverified
to Discard
[BGP/170] 05:34:11, localpref 100, from 10.198.123.238
AS path: I, validation-state: unverified
to Discard

Another option is to let inet3.0 use the rib already calculated by inet.0 table by using the below command.

[edit logical-systems l3vpn-RR routing-options]
RR.re0# show
graceful-restart {
restart-duration 500;
}
router-id 10.198.123.235;
autonomous-system 65004;
resolution {
rib inet3.0 {
resolution-ribs inet.0;
}
}

Both of these methods are valid and it depends upon which one you want to use in your network. For 2nd method you can configure prefix-list to list down only the specific network you want to exchange.

So that’s all for today. I hope I was to make it easy for you to understand. Let me know in case you have any comments or queries. J

R
Mohit

MPLS TTL

I have written about MPLS in my previous blogs but this time I want to highlight one crucial concept in case of MPLS within Service Provider environment. I hope you already know how TTL (Time to Live) works in IP network and its usage in helping the network by disallowing any mis-routed packet to loop indefinitely inside the Service Provider or Enterprise Network. Plus we know Traceroute command also uses TTL functionality to get the Intermediate hops towards the destination.

As you must know that inside MPLS environment we don’t use any IP functionality and IP packets gets encapsulated with MPLS packets. There is one TTL field which is part of IP Packet Header and when IP packets from customer comes to Service Provider; those IP packets gets encapsulated with MPLS packets and IP TTL fields gets hidden. Then how TTL in this case will prevent the Loop in MPLS environment? MPLS needs a loop prevention mechanism as does any other forwarding protocol. And instead of having to modify the IP header of every packet that passes through an interface on an LSR (Label Switch Router like P and PE) within the cloud, “it copies the IP packet’s TTL header information into a new label being pushed onto the IP packet” as it enters the MPLS cloud; Thus preventing having to touch the IP header information on the ingress packets.

As the packet traverses the MPLS cloud, each LSR will decrement the TTL within the MPLS header, just like in a typical IP network. As the packet reaches the egress Edge LSR, the E-LSR will pop the label on that packet, subtract the cost of one interface (the egress interface) from the current TTL value, and then apply/copy that value to the header of the IP packet that will be forwarded on.

Service Providers are usually providing some sort of L3 services, and their customers sit outside of their MPLS network. The result of the traceroute command with MPLS’s default configuration (i.e. copy of IP TTL to MPLS TTL field) allows for customers to see every next-hop in the path that one of their packets traverses. This can cause some headache for customers, as they don’t need to know what the provider’s topology consists of, but it also poses potential security risk for the Service Provider themselves.

The output below shows what it looks like for a customer to run the traceroute command with the default TTL copy behavior of MPLS.

1 192.168.15.1 44 msec 12 msec 24 msec

2 192.168.14.4 [MPLS: Labels 16/16 Exp 0] 80 msec 496 msec 88 msec

3 192.168.37.3 [MPLS: Label 16 Exp 0] 48 msec 60 msec 48 msec

4 192.168.37.6 56 msec 60 msec *

As you can see, the LSP’s or next-hops are present in the output. Again, it may be that the SP doesn’t want the customer to have that type of insight into their network, or the customer doesn’t want to see the next-hops while attempting to troubleshoot issues.

Thankfully, we have one solution. Under Cisco IOS we can use the “no mpls ip propagate-ttl [local | forwaded]” command to suppress the copying of the TTL from the IP packet’s header. For  Junos no-propagate-ttl under protocol mpls does the same thing. When this command is issued, the ingress Edge LSR will assign a generic TTL value of 255 to the label, instead of copying the IP packet’s current TTL.

As a result, the entire MPLS network will look as though it is just a single hop to the customer. As you can see below 🙂

1 192.168.15.1 28 msec 36 msec 16 msec

2 192.168.37.6 108 msec 108 msec *

The “local” option in the command above references traffic originated by the LSR itself. Such as when a Service Provider’s engineer logs into a router and issues the traceroute command, this would let SP engineer to see the LSR’s within the MPLS cloud. Whereas the forwarded option pertains to traffic that is originated external to the MPLS cloud, usually within the customer sites.

So, that’s all for MPLS TTL, I hope you have liked this blog 🙂

Regards

Mohit