Category Archives: Junos

DHCP Server on Juniper MX104

In this blog, we will discuss about configuration of DHCP for IPv4 on Junos particularly for MX104. MX router will act as a DHCP Local server which will assign IP Addresses to clients from the DHCP pool configured.

To configure DHCP as local server we need to apply the following license on MX which is paid license over the top.

subscriber-address-assignment – Radius/SRC Address Pool Assignment

subscriber-ip   – Dynamic and Static IP

For those who doesn’t want to buy license, they have option of configuring the DHCP as relay however for which server will be external and not internal.

With this blog, we will look at configuration of router acting as DHCP server. Relay configuration is not part of this current blog.

Below model topology will be used where clients (Windows Laptop) is connected to MX104 PE via switch. VRRP is configured with MX104 CE-1 and MX104 CE-2 and both are acting as DHCP Server, however we will be looking at configuration of MX104 CE-1 as same configuration needs to be configured on both.

MX104 PE is connected to MX960 PE over L2VPN which is just extending the L2 domain from client over to DHCP server.

DHCP Model

Ok Lets start by looking at Interface configuration on MX104-CE-1 where xe-2/0/3 link is connected to EX4550 switch and VRRP is running with VRRP VIP as 50.50.50.1 and address on logical interface is 50.50.50.101.

Nothing special till here and no DHCP configuration even.

MX104-CE-1> show configuration logical-systems LS2-CLMB interfaces xe-2/0/3
unit 601 {
 vlan-id 601;
 family inet {
 address 50.50.50.101/24 {
 vrrp-group 201 {
 virtual-address 50.50.50.1;
 priority 200;
 accept-data;
 track {
 route 0.0.0.0/0 routing-instance default priority-cost 101;
 }
 }
 }
 }
}

Ok now lets add DHCP configuration by defining the dhcp-local server under system services hierarchy.

Here we need to define the group with any arbitrary name and interface which will be participating in DHCP msg exchange.

system {
 services {
 dhcp-local-server {
 group dhcp {
 interface xe-2/0/3.601;
 }
 }
 }
}

Once dhcp server has been defined, we will configure DHCP pools to provide addresses to clients.

In same heirachy we can define the dhcp-attributes like lease time, DNS servers and router which suggests the ip address of router in the subnetwork. We have 2 routers providing the DHCP services however as its under VRRP it will be better to give just one address which will be VRRP VIP. In this way in case of any issues on CE-1, VIP will move over to CE-2 and it will be able to assign the addresses.

Range is defined as ip addresses which DHCP server will assign. Lease time is 24 hours in seconds i.e 86400

access {
 address-assignment {
 pool dhcp {
 family inet {
 network 50.50.50.0/24;
 range dhcp {
 low 50.50.50.4;
 high 50.50.50.100;
 }
 dhcp-attributes {
 maximum-lease-time 86400;
 name-server {
 8.8.8.8;
 }
 router {
 50.50.50.1;
 }
 }
 }
 }
 }
}

Once everything is done, as soon as Laptop comes online it will send the request and MX104 will assign the ip address. We will see the messages in just a while but one thing to note is that if you have protect-RE firewall filter configured on loopback0 interface of MX104, it is essential to allow bootps and bootpc messages

term dhcp {
from {
 protocol udp;
 port [ bootpc bootps ];
}
then accept;
}

MX104_CE-1> show dhcp server binding logical-system LS2-CLMB
IP address Session Id Hardware address  Expires State Interface
50.50.50.5 2          68:f7:28:45:14:91 85495   BOUND xe-2/0/3.601

As you can see above, 50.50.50.5 address has been assigned by MX104 and state is BOUND and also listing the hardware address of client machine.

Now lets see how DHCP messages flow. I have shown below the snapshots of wireshark capture for the DHCP messages.

As soon as Laptop comes online or it is connected to LAN, first message it sent is DHCP discover message which is basically a broadcast BOOTP message with frame field as its own mac address as source and all FFs as destination MAC. UDP port number is 68 with destination as 67 so it is basically looks like

UDP 0.0.0.0:68 -> 255.255.255.255:67

As client doesn’t have IP address at this time, it uses 0.0.0.0 as src ip.

68 is standard UDP port assigned for bootp client and 67 for bootp server.

DHCP_1

Once client broadcasts the DHCP discover request, DHCP server sends a DHCP Offer. Src IP Address is physical IP of router which is currently holding the VIP in VRRP case. In our case its MX104 CE-1.

Offer will contain the IP Address 50.50.50.5 as we have already seen in CLI output above along with other parameters which we configured like Lease time, Subnet Mask, Router address, DNS Server etc etc.

DHCP_2

After receiving the Offer and before accepting it, client again sends the broadcast message by including the IP 50.50.50.5 for confirmation.

DHCP_3

At this point, DHCP server sends unicast acknowledgment for it to keep the address and connection is complete.

DHCP Client will periodically sends DHCP Inform messages (both Unicast and Broadcast) to let others know of the address being used.

DHCP_4

Ok so that’s all for DHCP, i hope you liked the post and let me know if you have any feedback or queries.

Mohit Mittal

 

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Junos Telemetry

Hi All

Recently I attended a Juniper workshop in their London office and heard about Junos Telemetry concept which was really a new one for me and I quite liked it.

The basic idea is to replace traditional methods of collecting the data from devices on Management stations which helps Operations teams in more automated solution for managing their vast networks.

Traditional method which I am talking about here is SNMP which works on Pull model where Management station polls the network devices to gather useful information using MIBs and in turn displays the data to Network Admins/Operations Team. This method is being used currently and have succeed a lot. However as Hardware vendors are providing more and more APIs in their products which can be used by users to configure their devices in lots of innovative ways, polling or gather statistics via SNMP is not scalable in those scenario. Also SNMP polls the devices at regular interval which is again an operational challenge as something can happen on device between the intervals which wont be captured.

Junos Telemetry or Telemetry concept in general provides a Push model where we can configure the device to send the real time data based upon any trigger or in general for various parameters. 

Telemetry

  Source: Juniper Networks

In this blog, we are not going to see how its configured in CLI but who knows when I can get hold of appropriate Junos code and have a play on it 🙂 but till then let’s see what are its other features.

Junos Telemetry interface (JIT) as I mentioned above works on Push model where it streams the results to collector or even to Controller like Northstar to drive MPLS LSPs. Format of data what is being sent is either in form of Google Protocol buffer GPB or can be JSON based.

Juniper provides the collector software however there are open source collectors as well called OpenNTI collector which is basically a docker container consisting of 3 open-source components.

Shown below is one of the Visualization chart using Grafana,

Graphna

From application point of view, i think its one of the application could be to re-route the LSPs or create a LSP from Northstar Controller based upon the bandwidth statistics from interface. Once interface statistics reported to collector exceeds certain threshholds, Application can instruct Northstar controller to create a LSP via other route which can in long term works towards Self Driving Networks.

Other Application could be to provide more user-friendly stats about routers/network device to Operations like Memory, CPU usage in environment where thousands of routes or control packets are going via routers and memory hog can be created because of this.

Junos Telemetry Interface was introduced in Junos OS Release 15.1F3, on MX Series routers with interfaces configured on MPC1 through MPC6E, and on PTX Series routers with interfaces configured on FPC3.

So that’s all for Telemetry. I haven’t added much details on this as this is really a new concept for me and as n when I read more about it or get a chance to do hand-on on it, I will write more. Let me know your views on it and if you have used or planning to use this in your network.

Regards

Mohit

 

JUNIPER JUNOS COMMAND SERIES – 2

Hi All, lets continue our useful Junos command series by looking at 2 more interesting commands. One is really a way of doing same thing as in Cisco however 2nd is completely different command n I doubt available in other vendor CLIs.

We will look at configuration from interface stanza but can be applied to other areas.

So this is our example interface config from one of the interface.

re0.MX104_PE> show configuration interfaces ge-0/0/1
description "Test";
mtu 1600;
hold-time up 0 down 1000;
unit 0 {
 family inet {
 address 10.0.0.170/30;
 }
 family mpls;
}

Now due to any reason the interface which you were using has changed and now you need to put the same config on lets support ge-0/0/3

Lets look at current config of ge-0/0/3

re0.MX104_PE> show configuration interfaces ge-0/0/3
re0.MX104_PE>

As expected, config is empty and nothing has been configured.

Ok to configure the same parameters on new interface, one method is to go n set each configuration stanza individually. i.e..

edit
edit interface ge-0/0/3
set description “Test”
etc etc…

which is valid method but time consuming. Junos gives us facility to do the same thing by using command “copy

Using this command, you can copy the config from one interface to another without going through all those lengthy steps.

re0.MX104_PE> edit
Entering configuration mode
[edit]
re0.MX104_PE# copy interfaces ge-0/0/1 to ge-0/0/3

[edit]
re0.MX104_PE# show | compare
[edit interfaces]
+ ge-0/0/3 {
+ description "Test";
+ mtu 1600;
+ hold-time up 0 down 1000;
+ unit 0 {
+ family inet {
+ address 10.0.0.170/30;
+ }
+ family mpls;
+ }
+ }


re0.MX104_PE# delete interfaces ge-0/0/1

re0.MX104_PE# show | compare
[edit interfaces]
- ge-0/0/1 {
- description "Test";
- mtu 1600;
- hold-time up 0 down 1000;
- unit 0 {
- family inet {
- address 10.0.0.170/30;
- }
- family mpls;
- }
- }
+ ge-0/0/3 {
+ description "Test";
+ mtu 1600;
+ hold-time up 0 down 1000;
+ unit 0 {
+ family inet {
+ address 10.0.0.170/30;
+ }
+ family mpls;
+ }
+ }

So you can see this has made the configuration easy to move.

Only catch here is that target interface in which you want to copy the configuration should be totally empty of any configuration otherwise you will see error like this.

re0.MX104_PE# copy interfaces ge-0/0/1 to ge-0/0/3
error: target statement 'ge-0/0/3' already exists

Ok so that’s was one command

Lets move over to next command which is similar to Cisco or might be to other vendors but most of the Juniper engineers are not aware of this.

This is to delete the whole interface config and put that into default mode.

In Cisco IOS, we would be doing something like default interface <interface name> under config mode to put the config into default config.

In Juniper to achieve the same thing, you need to either delete individual statements under interface config or you can just mention delete at the top interface level which would prompt you for confirmation and will delete everything.

[edit]
re0.MX104_PE# edit interfaces ge-0/0/1

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/1]
re0.MX104_PE# show
description "Test";
mtu 1600;
hold-time up 0 down 1000;
unit 0 {
 family inet {
 address 10.0.0.170/30;
 }
 family mpls;
}

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/1]
re0.MX104_PE# delete
Delete everything under this level? [yes,no] (no) yes

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/1]
re0.MX104_PE# show | compare
[edit interfaces ge-0/0/1]
- description "Test";
- mtu 1600;
- hold-time up 0 down 1000;
- unit 0 {
- family inet {
- address 10.0.0.170/30;
- }
- family mpls;
- }

Only difference is that in Cisco using “default”, there will still be configuration present under interface like “no ip address” etc etc however in Junos, this will delete everything under it.

So that’s all, I hope you liked this article as well and will make use of these commands in your day to day operational work or troubleshooting.

Regards

Mohit Mittal

Juniper JunOS Command Series – 1

Hi All, from this series we will look at some useful JunOS commands and concepts where Juniper give us flexibility over other vendors and I hope this will help you in case you are switching from other vendor products to JunOS.

We will look at example from interface configuration however same can be applied to any stanza or part of configuration in Junos.

Lets start with configuration of interface ge-0/0/7 where 3 logical units have been defined and this link is made to participate in 3 vlans correspondingly.

MX104> show configuration interfaces ge-0/0/7
description Test;
vlan-tagging;
unit 100 {
    vlan-id 100;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.5/30;
    }
}
unit 200 {
    vlan-id 200;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.9/30;
    }
}
unit 300 {
    vlan-id 300;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.13/30;
    }
}

However later some requirement change and because of it you need to change the ip addressing on one of the unit from 10.10.10.5 to say 20.20.20.5.

Now one way of doing this in Junos is to configure the new address in below fashion!!

MX104>edit
Entering configuration mode

[edit]
MX104# edit interfaces ge-0/0/7

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# set unit 100 family inet address 20.20.20.5/30

But this has created an additional row under the interface stanza for which we have to write one delete statement to delete previous 10.10.10.5 address.

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# show
description Test;
vlan-tagging;
unit 100 {
    vlan-id 100;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.5/30;
        address 20.20.20.5/30;
    }
}
unit 200 {
    vlan-id 200;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.9/30;
    }
}
unit 300 {
    vlan-id 300;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.13/30;
    }
}
 
[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104#delete unit 100 family inet address 10.10.10.5/30

Final config is:

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# show
description Test;
vlan-tagging;
unit 100 {
    vlan-id 100;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.5/30;
    }
}
unit 200 {
    vlan-id 200;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.9/30;
    }
}
unit 300 {
    vlan-id 300;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.13/30;
    }
}

This method is fine for one change however not a very quick method. Junos gives us ability to change this value in very quick way by using “rename” command.

(NOTE: I did rollback the changes made above before proceeding further in order for interface configuration to be at same stage from where I started my blog)

Rename command renames the value of particular variable to new value and you need to mention the whole command hierarchy or go to level where you want the change to be applied. This is easy method to achieve same thing in less number of changes.

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# rename unit 100 family inet address 10.10.10.5/30 to address 20.20.20.5/30

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# show
description Test;
vlan-tagging;
unit 100 {
    vlan-id 100;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.5/30;
    }
}
unit 200 {
    vlan-id 200;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.9/30;
    }
}
unit 300 {
    vlan-id 300;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.13/30;
    }
}

Now, what if you want to change all IP Addresses under interface ge-0/0/7 stanza to use 20.20.20.x address rather than 10.10.10.x.. 2 methods can be set/delete and rename as we saw above however we have to define 2 rename statements in our case to change the ip addresses on remaining unit 200 and unit 300.

Again Junos is to the rescue and this time we will use another command “replace”. Replace command replaces the pattern you want to be replaced with new pattern.

Let’s see it in action.

Below is our configuration after we changed unit 100 with new ip address using rename command.

MX104> show configuration interfaces ge-0/0/7
description Test;
vlan-tagging;
unit 100 {
    vlan-id 100;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.5/30;
    }
}
unit 200 {
    vlan-id 200;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.9/30;
    }
}
unit 300 {
    vlan-id 300;
    family inet {
        address 10.10.10.13/30;
    }
} 

Now we have to change the ip addresses on unit 200 and unit 300 and in that case we can achieve this by using below command:

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# replace pattern 10.10.10 with 20.20.20

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# show
description Test;
vlan-tagging;
unit 100 {
    vlan-id 100;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.5/30;
    }
}
unit 200 {
    vlan-id 200;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.9/30;
    }
}
unit 300 {
    vlan-id 300;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.13/30;
    }
}

Pretty exciting and fast !!! 🙂

One thing to remember is that you have to be in exact hierarchy where you want this pattern to be replaced. If you are at the Top level i.e under edit hierarchy only, then this will replace all instances of 10.10.10 with 20.20.20 whereever it is in whole config and not just ge-0/0/7.

Let’s see this in action one more time.

below is our configuration resulting from replace method. Now lets assume that we have to change all units and accordingly vlan’s last 2 digits from 00 to 10.. so unit and vlan id needs to be changed from 100, 200 and 300 to 110, 210, and 310 respectively.

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# show
description Test;
vlan-tagging;
unit 100 {
    vlan-id 100;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.5/30;
    }
}
unit 200 {
    vlan-id 200;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.9/30;
    }
}
unit 300 {
    vlan-id 300;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.13/30;
    }
}


[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# replace pattern 00 with 10

[edit interfaces ge-0/0/7]
MX104# show
description Test;
vlan-tagging;
unit 110 {
    vlan-id 110;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.5/30;
    }
}
unit 210 {
    vlan-id 210;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.9/30;
    }
}
unit 310 {
    vlan-id 310;
    family inet {
        address 20.20.20.13/30;
    }
}

So that’s all, I hope you liked this article and will make use of these commands in your day to day operational work or troubleshooting. In future blogs we will see more useful commands and till then, have a nice day..

 

Regards

Mohit Mittal